minima maxima sunt

The Small things are the Great things; as in a grain of mustard seed.

Archive for the month “April, 2012”

El Salvador Crosses

El Salvador Crucifix

One of the things I enjoy is finding new styles of faith based art. Icons, book of hours and illuminated manuscripts, prayer beads and the Ukrainian eggs are some that have been brought forth in past blogs. These are all European examples of religious art. Today I’m going to the New World, to a place in Central America, in the country of El Salvador called La Palma.

El Salvador, was originally called “Provincia De Nuestro Señor Jesus Cristo, El Salvador Del Mundo” (“Province of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Savior of the World”) but thankfully was shortened to “República de El Salvador”, the Republic of the Saviour. We just call it El Salvador, and I would bet that anyone who lived during the 80’s probably remembers the civil war taking place there.

After the civil war, many were left struggling in the midst of low, wages poor labor practice and work in sweat shops throughout the country. It was different in La Palma, where in the 70’s they began to build an industry on art. This all came from a man named Fernando Llort. Known as El Salvador’s National Artist; Llort built the industry of art in La Palma, teaching the people how to make a living for themselves. The Industry has grown and La Palma has an economy based on tourism as well as exporting of their art.

Community Life

El Salvador art has similarities with art from other Central American countries, using bright solid colors and simple designs the art has a sort of innocence to it. Several motifs or patterns are also used, which depict everything from religion to social life. The Crucifix, Noah’s Ark, the Eucharist, as well as wedding celebrations, farming and family.

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Response to a Question

Mark the Evangelist from a Dutch Book of Hours ca. 1500

A question was recently asked about the titles given to people from church history. I started to respond but then I figured there was enough blabber on my part to constitute a blog.. so here it is.

Question from Mark the Lion: Who gave these men their titles? I was wondering??

That is a great question and I’m going to answer it two ways. First on titles in the religious duties and then about patronage.

The church began apostolic and has remained til this day. Christ gave authority to his apostles and they in turn passed that authority on to those who would come after. This is called an apostolic succession. The orders for ministry, whether for the presbyter or the bishop all stem from this. Even Paul was given the ‘right hand’ of fellowship. Mark was a disciple of Jesus, who must have received that ‘right hand’ as well, and as such travelled with apostles and eventually, upon founding the Alexandrian church was placed as bishop. A bishop is basically an overseer of a large area or community, whereas the priest (presbyter) tends to a more local flock.

As for the other titles such as referring to Mark as the evangelist? Well that comes mostly from tradition. Many of the saints and other figures from church history often bear additional names because the culture they were in also did the same. Charlemagne was an emperor whose name means Charles the Great (a name over used). There is King Richard the Lionheart and Edward the Confessor, William the Conqueror etc. So similar names were employed for popular saints. Some saints ended up with more than one moniker; for instance Mary, is referred to as the Blessed Virgin, Queen of Heaven, Theotokos, the Madonna, etc. This is because there is an identity that people like to focus on. A person who sees the importance in motherhood may like to think of Our Lady of Le leche, or breastfeeding mothers.

Our Lady of Le Leche in St. Augustine Fl.

This ties in the concept of patronage. Patronage is really just a way to see our lives in light of those who also have walked in our shoes. In this case Our Lady of Le Leche has special meaning not only for women who breastfeed or those with small children but also for those who have lost children. Mary suffered along with Jesus as a mother who is going to lose her child. There is a shrine in St. Augustine Fl. for Le Leche. A very beautiful and peaceful place, it is surrounded by a graveyard for children and infants.

Mark, the Lion

Mark writing the Gospel in Illuminated Manuscript.

The second Gospel in the canon of New Testament Scriptures is attributed to Mark. There are a few Marks mentioned in the bible, John Mark and Mark the cousin of Barnabas, and there is a strong tradition toward the writer being John Mark. The story goes that Mark was one of the 70 disciples, the son of another Mary (Mary the mother of John as in John Mark), John was his hebrew name but he was surnamed Marcus (Mark), also that he was the young man who ran from the garden of on the night Jesus was betrayed. It is believed that he travelled with the apostle Peter, and wrote down the Gospel from Peters point of view. The Gospel According to mark is the earliest of the Four Gospels in the Canon.

St. Mark is known for founding the Alexandrian church of which he was also bishop. Alexandria was one of the centers of the early christian church, along with Jerusalem, Antioch and Rome. He was martyred there in the year 68.

Saint Mark the Evangelist

As mentioned in the Evangelical Symbols post, St. Mark’s symbol is that of the Lion, and in iconography of St. Mark there may be a lion in view or hiding in the scenery. The lion was a symbol of majesty and wisdom with which the Gospel of Mark is credited. In the illuminated manuscript page, you can see the winged lion sitting under the table Mark is writing the Scriptures on. The scripture is another symbol often seen with mark, seen as an open scroll or a piece of paper with writing on it or sometimes as just a book, the symbol sets him as an author of Sacred Scripture.

St. Vojtěch

The Expulsion of St Adalbert 1470-80

St. Vojtěch (956-997), also knows as St. Adalbert, was the bishop of Prague, a missionary, and a martyr. His efforts as a missionary helped to to evangelize Hungary and Poland, but he was martyred in Prussia. He is the Patron of Poland, Hungary, Prussia and Bohemia. His Feast day is on the 23rd of April.

Born the son of nobility in Lebice nad Cidlinou, Bohemia;  Vojtěch left to enter the priesthood and studied in Madgeburg, Germany. He studied about 10 years under Adalbert of Madgeburg, where upon the death of his teacher, Vojtěch adopted his name. Madgeburg at this time was also the home of the Emperor Otto I, but there is no mention of the two ever crossing paths. Adalbert returned to Poland and became a priest.

His service as a priest was short-lived, as only a year later, in 982 he became the Bishop of Prague. But life as a Bishop was taxing. Adalbert came from a wealthy family, but chose to live a simple life, even in his place as bishop. He challenged issues of polygamy, slave trade as well as idolatry which were still popular in Bohemia (Czech Republic today) as it was very new to christianity. Adalbert left his position as bishop in 989.

Seeking a contemplative life, Adalbert entered St. Alexis Benedictine monastery in Italy and lived as a hermit. However, it wasn’t long before he found himself back in Bohemia. Pope John XV sent him in 993, so Adalbert could take up again the office of bishop. This time he built the first monastery in the region. His ministry however was still challenging,  but it was a local feud in Poland which took the lives of several of his brothers which would eventually cause him to leave his office.

It is here that his missionary work begins. First going to Hungary then Poland where he had much success. He then went into Prussia where he was martyred on April 23, 997.

A Canterbury Tale

Stained Glass of St. Anselm

April 21st is the feast of Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109). Saint, Doctor of the church and Benedictine monk, he is attributed with the definition of theology as “faith seeking to understand” as well as several works of philosophy. He is also known for the developement of the ontological argument for the existence of God.

Anselm is also referred to as the Father of Scholasticism, a method of teaching prevalent in the middle ages used to challenge and resolve contradictions through logic. Scholasticism was an extension of the developement of learning started in the early middle ages, being born from the monastic schools during that period. The ontological argument is an example of such as it sets to prove the existence of God through reason and logic apart from empirical evidence.

The ontological argument goes like this:

  • Our understanding of God is a being than which no greater can be conceived.
  • The idea of God exists in the mind.
  • A being which exists both in the mind and in reality is greater than a being that exists only in the mind.
  • If God only exists in the mind, then we can conceive of a greater being—that which exists in reality.
  • We cannot be imagining something that is greater than God.
  • Therefore, God exists.

An interesting argument, its had its share of critics as well as successors, even to this day. The famous skeptic Bertrand Russell was said to have claimed the argument was sound. René Descartes developed the argument. One of Anselm’s contemporaries and fellow Benedictine monk, Gaunilo of Marmoutiers, criticized it and showed that the argument could in fact be used to prove anything even the idea of a perfect Island.

Anselm didn’t just reside in the academics, he was also the Archbishop of Canterbury. His appointment there was interrupted by exile twice as Anselm disputed with William II and Henry I on issues of church and state. He was also opposed to  the slave trade, and pushed for church reform in several areas which included simony, celibacy, and homage to secular lords. He died April 21, 1109  performing his duties as Archbishop.

Septem Artes Liberales

The Seven Liveral Arts -Herrad Von Landsberg -1180

Several years ago I had the great pleasure of reading my first book from G.K. Chesterton. I have been a fan ever since. A writer of fiction, history, poetry, mystery, plays, and faith; all filled with his trademark paradoxical and profound writing style. One of the first books of his which I read was called Orthodoxy. It is from this book that the following quote is taken, and it concerns a term known as the Dark Ages.

I take in order the next instance offered: the idea that Christianity belongs to the Dark Ages. Here I did not satisfy myself with reading modern generalisations; I read a little history. And in history I found that Christianity, so far from belonging to the Dark Ages, was the one path across the Dark Ages that was not dark. It was a shining bridge connecting two shining civilizations.
If any one says that the faith arose in ignorance and savagery the answer is simple: it didn’t. It arose in the Mediterranean civilization in the full summer of the Roman Empire. The world was swarming with sceptics, and pantheism was as plain as the sun, when Constantine nailed the cross to the mast.
It is perfectly true that afterwards the ship sank; but it is far more extraordinary that the ship came up again: repainted and glittering, with the cross still at the top. This is the amazing thing the religion did: it turned a sunken ship into a submarine. The ark lived under the load of waters; after being buried under the debris of dynasties and clans, we arose and remembered Rome.
If our faith had been a mere fad of the fading empire, fad would have followed fad in the twilight, and if the civilization ever re-emerged (and many such have never re-emerged) it would have been under some new barbaric flag.
But the Christian Church was the last life of the old society and was also the first life of the new. She took the people who were forgetting how to make an arch and she taught them to invent the Gothic arch.
In a word, the most absurd thing that could be said of the Church is the thing we have all heard said of it. How can we say that the Church wishes to bring us back into the Dark Ages? The Church was the only thing that ever brought us out of them.

This quote came to mind while reading about the development of education in Europe. As early as the 5th century, schools were forming in monasteries and at cathedrals mostly to teach clergy. Later in the 11th century, universities would arise that would take the knowledge preserved through the collapse of the Roman Empire and set the stage for modern science. It’s through these years when the western empire (Europe) was struggling, that the church, which was the only institution to survive the fall of the Roman Empire, held things in the west together.

Islam, coming in to play in the 7th century took control of much of the former Empire and with the wealth of knowledge gained made several advances in science and math. Byzantium in the east, being the capital of the remaining Empire held things together, but the west was too far removed from the authority in Byzantium to benefit from it’s power. In the west there were several revivals through this period such as the Carolingian Renaissance, and schools of learning in Ireland, and several notable persons such as Saint Isidore of Seville who produced a Latin Encyclopedia in the 7th century. But in all of this it was the church which stabilized the west, and over the years Europe began to get back on track.

The main subjects one would learn during this time were those of the Trivium and Quadrivium. Trivium consisted of Grammar, Dialectic and Logic. These were preparatory for the areas of study in the Quadrivium which were Geometry, Arithmetic, Astrology and Music. Together these formed the seven liberal arts. Upon completion of these, the student would gain a master of arts and from there could advance into the study of Theology, Law or Medicine.

The arts date back to Greek times, but the seven noted above are generally attributed to a 5th century pagan named Marianus Capella. Later they were separated into the Trivium (latin for Way of Three) and Quadrivium (Way of Four). Gerbert d’Aurillac who would become Pope Sylvester II, was pivotal in the education of Europe, having mastered the Trivium and Quadrivium he became a teacher himself having as one of his students the future emperor Otto III. Gerbert is also known for introducing the abacus to Europe, as well as Persian/Islamic numerals for arithmetic (how does one do math with roman numerals?), and the astrolabe.

Sylvester II at the right hand of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III – his former pupil who made him pope in 999.

Jezu Ufam Tobie

Divine Mercy Painting by Adolf HylaThe second Sunday in the Easter season is known by catholics as Divine Mercy Sunday. It is a latecomer to the calendar, the first mass celebrating Divine Mercy was in 1935. Since then devotion has grown and now there are Novenas and Chaplets based on the Divine Mercy.

The whole story starts with a Polish Nun in the early 20th century by name of Mary Faustina Kowalska, who had several visions of Christ which she wrote about in her diary. The theme of the devotion is three-fold. To ask God for mercy, to trust in Christs mercy and to extend mercy to others. Nothing very novel about any of this except that it was a new way of focusing on it in prayer, and devotion. One of the most ancient Christian prayers is the Jesus Prayer, which repeats the words of the Publican from the Gospels; “Lord Jesus, Son of God, have mercy on me.” The Divine Mercy devotion takes this a little further by emphasising our trust and response to Christs mercy.

There is also a painting of the vision St. Faustina (This is her popular name.. canonized in 2000) which is shown above. This one was painted by Adolf Hyla in 1943, the phrase at the bottom, Jesu Ufam Tobie, is Polish for Jesus, I trust in You. The image of which there are several variations, show red and white light coming from the wound in Christ’s from the roman spear, which represent the Blood and Water pouring from his side.

St. Faustina died in 1938, and what may be the most interesting part of this is that she also predicted a war. Within a year Poland was under Nazi occupation. And it is said that as many Catholics as Jews died in Poland; to be specific, about 3 million of each. It seems that in a way God was preparing the church in Poland, not only for their own trials, but for the trials of others. 6266 Polish men and women have gained the title of Righteous among the Nations by the state of Israel for rescuing Jews during the Holocaust.

Ask for God’s mercy, trust God for mercy, and allow His mercy to work through us to others.

 “I have found that the greatest power is hidden patience. I see that patience always leads to victory, although not immediately; but that victory will become manifest after many years. Patience is linked to meekness.”- St. Faustina

Asperges

Blessing of Holy Water at Easter Vigil

Easter Sunday is the beginning of the Easter season, sometimes called Eastertide, which lasts for 50 days until Pentecost Sunday. Like Christmas, the liturgical season lasts much longer than just a day. As such the idea of new birth and resurrection factor into the celebration of the mass through this time. The Asperges, which is a rite of sprinkling of the congregation with Holy Water, may be performed on Sundays through lent. The rite is a reminder of our Baptism.

During the rite, the priest will bless water, and may add some salt, then using a branch of hyssop or sprinkler, will proceed to sprinkle himself, the deacons and servers, and then go through the congregation sprinkling and singing an antiphon or hymn as he does so.

Holy Water isn’t just used for this symbolic rite. It’s also found at the entrances of church buildings throughout the year. People entering can dip their hands and bless themselves, again as a symbol and reminder of Baptism. This is done by making the Sign of the Cross.

Lux In Tenebris Lucet

The Easter Vigil Mass

Tonight is when Catholics celebrate the Easter Vigil. It is probably the longest mass, sometimes lasting three or more hours, but without a doubt is the most beautiful of celebrations as the imagery of darkness and light, of creation, baptism, resurrection, are all contained in this vigil of vigils.

The service begins in darkness. Fire is made and from this the Paschal Candle is lit. This candle is used through out the Easter season and will be present throughout the year for special services such as baptisms and funerals. From the Paschal Candle the flame will be passed onto the rest of the congregation, who holding candles will pass this light on to those next to them, eventually illuminating the celebration with the light that from one candle has spread to all. Several passages from the Hebrew Scriptures are then read as the Liturgy of the Word begins. The focus is on rebirth with the symbol of spirit and water. The Creation, the Flood, and scriptures are read, until the lights go on and the Gloria is sung for the first time (except on Maundy Thursday) since the beginning of Lent. The stone of Christs tomb has been rolled away.

The Empty Tomb. Fragment from a Psalter.

The mass continues as the baptismal font is blessed with the Paschal Candle, and those who have been preparing to come into the church are baptized and anointed with oil, after which the celebration of the Eucharist is held and those who have just been baptized receive that most Blessed Sacrament.

It is without a doubt my favourite mass of the year, so rich in symbolism and beauty. But there is another reason why I particularly enjoy this mass which comes from a story in the Hebrew Scriptures.

The story comes from Genesis 15 when God makes a covenant with that father of the Hebrew faith, Abraham. Out in the darkness, having prepared a sacrifice, Abraham waits for God. I can imagine the night, black and star scattered, where the lonely Abraham awaits the Lord. Then in the darkness appears a light, “a smoking furnace and lamp of fire”, passing through the sacrifice. And the Most High God, makes a covenant with Abraham.

The story has always awed me, because there is a certain fearful mystery that surrounds it. Haunting, powerful, and holy. It is the darkness of a lonely desert where you can look up into the pure heavens, as if peering over the edge of a cliff into a black sea with no bottom. But then light approaches, chasing away the darkness and bringing peace. The shadows are cast aside, as holy light is revealed.

John 1:4-5

 In ipso vita erat, et vita erat lux hominum :

et lux in tenebris lucet, et tenebræ eam non comprehenderunt.

 In him was life: and the life was the light of men. 

 And the light shines in darkness: and the darkness did not comprehend it.

At the first Easter Vigil I attended, it was this most of all which I came away with. An answer to this mysterious tale from the book of Genesis and what it means for me.

Paschal

From the Gospel according to John-chapters 18-19,

and images from the Petites Houres of John of Berry-14th century Book of Hours:

hen Jesus had said these things, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where there was a garden, into which he entered with his disciples.  And Judas also, who betrayed him, knew the place: because Jesus had often resorted thither together with his disciples.  Judas therefore having received a band of soldiers and servants from the chief priests and the Pharisees, comes thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.  Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth and said to them: Whom do you seek?

Arrest in the Garden

They answered him: Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus says to them: I am he. And Judas also, who betrayed him, stood with them.  As soon therefore as he had said to them: I am he; they went backward and fell to the ground.  Again therefore he asked them: Whom do you seek? And they said: Jesus of Nazareth.  Jesus answered: I have told you that I am he. If therefore you seek me, let these go their way,  that the word might be fulfilled which he said: Of them whom you have given me, I have not lost any one.  Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear. And the name of you servant was Malchus.  Jesus therefore said to Peter: Put up your sword into the scabbard. The chalice which my father has given me, shall I not drink it?  Then the band and the tribune and the servants of the Jews took Jesus and bound him.

Before Caiphas

And they led him away to Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiphas, who was the high priest of that year.  Now Caiphas was he who had given the counsel to the Jews: That it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

And Simon Peter followed Jesus: and so did another disciple. And that disciple was known to the high priest and went in with Jesus into the court of the high priest.  But Peter stood at the door without. The other disciple therefore, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to the portress and brought in Peter.  The maid therefore that was portress says to Peter: Are you not also one of this man’s disciple? He says I am not.  Now the servants and ministers stood at a fire of coals, because it was cold, and warmed themselves. And with them was Peter also, standing and warming himself.

The high priest therefore asked Jesus of his disciples and of his doctrine.  Jesus answered him: I have spoken openly to the world. I have always taught in the synagogue and in the temple, whither all the Jews resort: and in secret I have spoken nothing. Why do you ask me? Ask them who have heard what I have spoken unto them. Behold they know what things I have said.  And when he had said these things, one of the servants standing by gave Jesus a blow, saying: Do you answer the high priest so?  Jesus answered him: If I have spoken evil, give testimony of the evil; but if well, why do you strike me?  And Annas sent him bound to Caiphas the high priest.

Mocking

And Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They said therefore to him: Are you not also one of his disciples? He denied it and said: I am not.  One of the servants of the high priest (a kinsman to him whose ear Peter cut off) said to him: Did not I see you in the garden with him?  Again therefore Peter denied: and immediately the cock crew.

Then they led Jesus from Caiphas to the governor’s hall. And it was morning: and they went not into the hall, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the pasch.  Pilate therefore went out to them, and said: What accusation bring you against this man?  They answered and said to him: If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up to you.  Pilate therefore said to them: Take him you, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said to him: It is not lawful for us to put any man to death.  That the word of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he said, signifying what death he should die.  Pilate therefore went into the hall again and called Jesus and said to him: Are you the king of the Jews?  Jesus answered: Do you say this thing of yourself, or have others told it you of me?  Pilate answered: Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered you up to me. What have you done?  Jesus answered: My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would certainly strive that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now my kingdom is not from hence.  Pilate therefore said to him: Are you a king then? Jesus answered: You say that I am a king. For this was I born, and for this came I into the world; that I should give testimony to the truth. Every one that is of the truth hears my voice.  Pilate said to him: What is truth? And when he said this, he went out again to the Jews and says to them: I find no cause in him.  But you have a custom that I should release one unto you at the Pasch. Will you, therefore, that I release unto you the king of the Jews?  Then cried they all again, saying: Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

Flagellation.

hen therefore Pilate took Jesus and scourged him.  And the soldiers platting a crown of thorns, put it upon his head: and they put on him a purple garment.  And they came to him and said: Hail, king of the Jews. And they gave him blows.  Pilate therefore went forth again and says to them: Behold, I bring him forth unto you, that you may know that I find no cause in him.  (Jesus therefore came forth, bearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment.) And he says to them: Behold the Man.  When the chief priests, therefore, and the servants had seen him, they cried out, saying: Crucify him, Crucify him. Pilate says to them: Take him you, and crucify him: for I find no cause in him.

The Jews answered him: We have a law; and according to the law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.  When Pilate therefore had heard this saying, he feared the more.  And he entered into the hall again; and he said to Jesus: Whence are you? But Jesus gave him no answer.  Pilate therefore said to him: Do you not speak to me? Do you not know that I have power to crucify you, and I have power to release you?  Jesus answered: You should not have any power against me, unless it were given you from above. Therefore, he that has delivered me to you has the greater sin.  And from henceforth Pilate sought to release him. But the Jews cried out, saying: If you release this man, you are not Caesar’s friend. For whosoever makes himself a king speaks against Caesar.

Now when Pilate had heard these words, he brought Jesus forth and sat down in the judgment seat, in the place that is called Lithostrotos, and in Hebrew Gabbatha.  And it was the parasceve of the pasch, about the sixth hour: and he says to the Jews: Behold your king.  But they cried out: Away with him: Away with him: Crucify him. Pilate says to them: shall I crucify your king? The chief priests answered: We have no king but Caesar.  Then therefore he delivered him to them to be crucified. And they took Jesus and led him forth.

Jesus Carries the Cross

And bearing his own cross, he went forth to the place which is called Calvary, but in Hebrew Golgotha.  Where they crucified him, and with him two others, one on each side, and Jesus in the midst.  And Pilate wrote a title also: and he put it upon the cross. And the writing was: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS.  This title therefore many of the Jews did read: because the place where Jesus was crucified was near to the city. And it was written in Hebrew, in Greek, and in Latin.  Then the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate: Write not: The King of the Jews. But that he said: I am the King of the Jews.  Pilate answered: What I have written, I have written.  The soldiers therefore, when they had crucified him, took his garments, (and they made four parts, to every soldier a part) and also his coat. Now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.  They said then one to another: Let us not cut it but let us cast lots for it, whose it shall be; that the scripture might be fulfilled, saying: They have parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture they have cast lots. And the soldiers indeed did these things.

The Crucifixion

Now there stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother and his mother’s sister, Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalen.  When Jesus therefore had seen his mother and the disciple standing whom he loved, he says to his mother: Woman, behold your son.  After that, he says to the disciple: Behold your mother. And from that hour, the disciple took her to his own.  Afterwards, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, said: I thirst.  Now there was a vessel set there, full of vinegar. And they, putting a sponge full of vinegar about hyssop, put it to his mouth.  Jesus therefore, when he had taken the vinegar, said: It is consummated. And bowing his head, he gave up the ghost.

Jesus taken down from the Cross

Then the Jews (because it was the parasceve), that the bodies might not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day (for that was a great sabbath day), besought Pilate that their legs might be broken: and that they might be taken away.  The soldiers therefore came: and they broke the legs of the first, and of the other that was crucified with him.  But after they had come to Jesus, when they saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs.  But one of the soldiers with a spear opened his side: and immediately there came out blood and water.  And he that saw it has given testimony: and his testimony is true. And he knows that he says true: that you also may believe.  For these things were done that the scripture might be fulfilled: You shall not break a bone of him.  And again another scripture says: They shall look on him whom they pierced.

And after these things, Joseph of Arimathea (because he was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews), besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus. And Pilate gave leave. He came therefore and took away the body of Jesus.  And Nicodemus also came (he who at the first came to Jesus by night), bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight.  They took therefore the body of Jesus and bound it in linen cloths, with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.  Now there was in the place where he was crucified a garden: and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein no man yet had been laid.  There, therefore, because of the parasceve of the Jews, they laid Jesus: because the sepulchre was near at hand.

Jesus placed in the Tomb

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